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Automated dynamic lighting control system to reduce energy consumption in daylight

Jagannathan et al. | Jun 17, 2024

Automated dynamic lighting control system to reduce energy consumption in daylight
Image credit: Jagannathan and Mehrotra 2024

Buildings, which are responsible for the majority of electricity consumption in cities like Dubai, are often exclusively reliant on electrical lighting even in the presence of daylight to meet the illumination requirements of the building. This inefficient use of lighting creates potential to further optimize the energy efficiency of buildings by complementing natural light with electrical lighting. Prior research has mostly used ballasts (variable resistors) to regulate the brightness of bulbs. There has been limited research pertaining to the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) and the use of ‘triodes for alternating current’ (TRIACs). PWM and TRIACs rapidly stop and restart the flow of current to the bulb thus saving energy whilst maintaining a constant illumination level of a space. We conducted experiments to investigate the feasibility of using TRIACs and PWM in regulating the brightness of bulbs. We also established the relationship between power and brightness within the experimental setups. Our results indicate that lighting systems can be regulated through these alternate methods and that there is potential to save up to 16% of energy used without affecting the overall lighting of a given space. Since most energy used in buildings is still produced through fossil fuels, energy savings from lighting systems could contribute towards a lower carbon footprint. Our study provides an innovative solution to conserve light energy in buildings during daytime.

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Quantitative analysis and development of alopecia areata classification frameworks

Dubey et al. | Jun 03, 2024

Quantitative analysis and development of alopecia areata classification frameworks

This article discusses Alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder causing sudden hair loss due to the immune system mistakenly attacking hair follicles. The article introduces the use of deep learning (DL) techniques, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNN), for classifying images of healthy and alopecia-affected hair. The study presents a comparative analysis of newly optimized CNN models with existing ones, trained on datasets containing images of healthy and alopecia-affected hair. The Inception-Resnet-v2 model emerged as the most effective for classifying Alopecia Areata.

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Using two-stage deep learning to assist the visually impaired with currency differentiation

Nachnani et al. | Jun 02, 2024

Using two-stage deep learning to assist the visually impaired with currency differentiation
Image credit: Omer Shahzad

Here, recognizing the difficulty that visually impaired people may have differentiating United States currency, the authors sought to use artificial intelligence (AI) models to identify US currencies. With a one-stage AI they reported a test accuracy of 89%, finding that multi-level deep learning models did not provide any significant advantage over a single-level AI.

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Comparison of three large language models as middle school math tutoring assistants

Ramanathan et al. | May 02, 2024

Comparison of three large language models as middle school math tutoring assistants
Image credit: Thirdman

Middle school math forms the basis for advanced mathematical courses leading up to the university level. Large language models (LLMs) have the potential to power next-generation educational technologies, acting as digital tutors to students. The main objective of this study was to determine whether LLMs like ChatGPT, Bard, and Llama 2 can serve as reliable middle school math tutoring assistants on three tutoring tasks: hint generation, comprehensive solution, and exercise creation.

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Automated classification of nebulae using deep learning & machine learning for enhanced discovery

Nair et al. | Feb 01, 2024

Automated classification of nebulae using deep learning & machine learning for enhanced discovery

There are believed to be ~20,000 nebulae in the Milky Way Galaxy. However, humans have only cataloged ~1,800 of them even though we have gathered 1.3 million nebula images. Classification of nebulae is important as it helps scientists understand the chemical composition of a nebula which in turn helps them understand the material of the original star. Our research on nebulae classification aims to make the process of classifying new nebulae faster and more accurate using a hybrid of deep learning and machine learning techniques.

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Predicting college retention rates from Google Street View images of campuses

Dileep et al. | Jan 02, 2024

Predicting college retention rates from Google Street View images of campuses
Image credit: Dileep et al. 2024

Every year, around 40% of undergraduate students in the United States discontinue their studies, resulting in a loss of valuable education for students and a loss of money for colleges. Even so, colleges across the nation struggle to discover the underlying causes of these high dropout rates. In this paper, the authors discuss the use of machine learning to find correlations between the built environment factors and the retention rates of colleges. They hypothesized that one way for colleges to improve their retention rates could be to improve the physical characteristics of their campus to be more pleasing. The authors used image classification techniques to look at images of colleges and correlate certain features like colors, cars, and people to higher or lower retention rates. With three possible options of high, medium, and low retention rates, the probability that their models reached the right conclusion if they simply chose randomly was 33%. After finding that this 33%, or 0.33 mark, always fell outside of the 99% confidence intervals built around their models’ accuracies, the authors concluded that their machine learning techniques can be used to find correlations between certain environmental factors and retention rates.

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What is the optimal fuel for space flight? Efficiency, cost, and environmental impact

Kapitonova et al. | Dec 28, 2023

What is the optimal fuel for space flight? Efficiency, cost, and environmental impact
Image credit: NASA

Here, the authors sought to investigate the efficiency, cost, and environmental impact of several possible propellants that are or could be used for space flight. By deriving three novel equations, they identified harm, energy, and cost scores for each fuel, suggesting that considering each factor will be essential to the ongoing growth of the space industry.

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