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Recognition of animal body parts via supervised learning

Kreiman et al. | Oct 28, 2023

Recognition of animal body parts via supervised learning
Image credit: Kreiman et al. 2023

The application of machine learning techniques has facilitated the automatic annotation of behavior in video sequences, offering a promising approach for ethological studies by reducing the manual effort required for annotating each video frame. Nevertheless, before solely relying on machine-generated annotations, it is essential to evaluate the accuracy of these annotations to ensure their reliability and applicability. While it is conventionally accepted that there cannot be a perfect annotation, the degree of error associated with machine-generated annotations should be commensurate with the error between different human annotators. We hypothesized that machine learning supervised with adequate human annotations would be able to accurately predict body parts from video sequences. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the quality of annotations generated by humans and machines for the body parts of sheep during treadmill walking. For human annotation, two annotators manually labeled six body parts of sheep in 300 frames. To generate machine annotations, we employed the state-of-the-art pose-estimating library, DeepLabCut, which was trained using the frames annotated by human annotators. As expected, the human annotations demonstrated high consistency between annotators. Notably, the machine learning algorithm also generated accurate predictions, with errors comparable to those between humans. We also observed that abnormal annotations with a high error could be revised by introducing Kalman Filtering, which interpolates the trajectory of body parts over the time series, enhancing robustness. Our results suggest that conventional transfer learning methods can generate behavior annotations as accurate as those made by humans, presenting great potential for further research.

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Transfer learning and data augmentation in osteosarcoma cancer detection

Chu et al. | Jun 03, 2023

Transfer learning and data augmentation in osteosarcoma cancer detection
Image credit: Chu and Khan 2023

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that affects young adults and children. Early diagnosis of osteosarcoma is crucial to successful treatment. The current methods of diagnosis, which include imaging tests and biopsy, are time consuming and prone to human error. Hence, we used deep learning to extract patterns and detect osteosarcoma from histological images. We hypothesized that the combination of two different technologies (transfer learning and data augmentation) would improve the efficacy of osteosarcoma detection in histological images. The dataset used for the study consisted of histological images for osteosarcoma and was quite imbalanced as it contained very few images with tumors. Since transfer learning uses existing knowledge for the purpose of classification and detection, we hypothesized it would be proficient on such an imbalanced dataset. To further improve our learning, we used data augmentation to include variations in the dataset. We further evaluated the efficacy of different convolutional neural network models on this task. We obtained an accuracy of 91.18% using the transfer learning model MobileNetV2 as the base model with various geometric transformations, outperforming the state-of-the-art convolutional neural network based approach.

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Automated classification of nebulae using deep learning & machine learning for enhanced discovery

Nair et al. | Feb 01, 2024

Automated classification of nebulae using deep learning & machine learning for enhanced discovery

There are believed to be ~20,000 nebulae in the Milky Way Galaxy. However, humans have only cataloged ~1,800 of them even though we have gathered 1.3 million nebula images. Classification of nebulae is important as it helps scientists understand the chemical composition of a nebula which in turn helps them understand the material of the original star. Our research on nebulae classification aims to make the process of classifying new nebulae faster and more accurate using a hybrid of deep learning and machine learning techniques.

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A comparative analysis of machine learning approaches for prediction of breast cancer

Nag et al. | May 11, 2021

A comparative analysis of machine learning approaches for prediction of breast cancer

Machine learning and deep learning techniques can be used to predict the early onset of breast cancer. The main objective of this analysis was to determine whether machine learning algorithms can be used to predict the onset of breast cancer with more than 90% accuracy. Based on research with supervised machine learning algorithms, Gaussian Naïve Bayes, K Nearest Algorithm, Random Forest, and Logistic Regression were considered because they offer a wide variety of classification methods and also provide high accuracy and performance. We hypothesized that all these algorithms would provide accurate results, and Random Forest and Logistic Regression would provide better accuracy and performance than Naïve Bayes and K Nearest Neighbor.

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Does technology help or hurt learning? Evidence from middle school and high school students

Lu et al. | Oct 02, 2022

Does technology help or hurt learning? Evidence from middle school and high school students

Here, recognizing the vastly different opinion held regarding device usage, the authors considered the effects of technology use on middle and high school students' learning effectiveness. Using an anonymous online survey they found partial support that device use at school increases learning effectiveness, but found strong support for a negative effect of technology use at home on learning effectiveness. Based on their findings they suggest that the efficacy of technology depends on environmental context along with other important factors that need consideration.

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Propagation of representation bias in machine learning

Dass-Vattam et al. | Jun 10, 2021

Propagation of representation bias in machine learning

Using facial recognition as a use-case scenario, we attempt to identify sources of bias in a model developed using transfer learning. To achieve this task, we developed a model based on a pre-trained facial recognition model, and scrutinized the accuracy of the model’s image classification against factors such as age, gender, and race to observe whether or not the model performed better on some demographic groups than others. By identifying the bias and finding potential sources of bias, his work contributes a unique technical perspective from the view of a small scale developer to emerging discussions of accountability and transparency in AI.

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Collaboration beats heterogeneity: Improving federated learning-based waste classification

Chong et al. | Jul 18, 2023

Collaboration beats heterogeneity: Improving federated learning-based waste classification

Based on the success of deep learning, recent works have attempted to develop a waste classification model using deep neural networks. This work presents federated learning (FL) for a solution, as it allows participants to aid in training the model using their own data. Results showed that with less clients, having a higher participation ratio resulted in less accuracy degradation by the data heterogeneity.

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