The purpose of the study was to determine whether graph-based machine learning techniques, which have increased prevalence in the last few years, can accurately classify data into one of many clusters, while requiring less labeled training data and parameter tuning as opposed to traditional machine learning algorithms. The results determined that the accuracy of graph-based and traditional classification algorithms depends directly upon the number of features of each dataset, the number of classes in each dataset, and the amount of labeled training data used.
This study hypothesized that a machine learning model could accurately predict the severity of California wildfires and determine the most influential meteorological factors. It utilized a custom dataset with information from the World Weather Online API and a Kaggle dataset of wildfires in California from 2013-2020. The developed algorithms classified fires into seven categories with promising accuracy (around 55 percent). They found that higher temperatures, lower humidity, lower dew point, higher wind gusts, and higher wind speeds are the most significant contributors to the spread of a wildfire. This tool could vastly improve the efficiency and preparedness of firefighters as they deal with wildfires.
Coral bleaching is a fatal process that reduces coral diversity, leads to habitat loss for marine organisms, and is a symptom of climate change. This process occurs when corals expel their symbiotic dinoflagellates, algae that photosynthesize within coral tissue providing corals with glucose. Restoration efforts have attempted to repair damaged reefs; however, there are over 360,000 square miles of coral reefs worldwide, making it challenging to target conservation efforts. Thus, predicting the likelihood of bleaching in a certain region would make it easier to allocate resources for conservation efforts. We developed a machine learning model to predict global locations at risk for coral bleaching. Data obtained from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office consisted of various coral bleaching events and the parameters under which the bleaching occurred. Sea surface temperature, sea surface temperature anomalies, longitude, latitude, and coral depth below the surface were the features found to be most correlated to coral bleaching. Thirty-nine machine learning models were tested to determine which one most accurately used the parameters of interest to predict the percentage of corals that would be bleached. A random forest regressor model with an R-squared value of 0.25 and a root mean squared error value of 7.91 was determined to be the best model for predicting coral bleaching. In the end, the random model had a 96% accuracy in predicting the percentage of corals that would be bleached. This prediction system can make it easier for researchers and conservationists to identify coral bleaching hotspots and properly allocate resources to prevent or mitigate bleaching events.
Here the authors sought to use three machine learning models to predict poverty levels in Cambodia based on available household data. They found teat multilayer perceptron outperformed the other models, with an accuracy of 87 %. They suggest that data-driven approaches such as these could be used more effectively target and alleviate poverty.
Long hospital stays can be stressful for the patient for many reasons. We hypothesized that age would be the greatest predictor of hospital stay among patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. Through our models, we found that severity of illness was indeed the highest factor that contributed to determining patient length of stay. The other two factors that followed were the facility that the patient was staying in and the type of procedure that they underwent.
Seeking to investigate the effects of ambient pollutants on human respiratory health, here the authors used machine learning to examine asthma in Lost Angeles County, an area with substantial pollution. By using machine learning models and classification techniques, the authors identified that nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were significantly correlated with asthma hospitalizations. Based on an identified seasonal surge in asthma hospitalizations, the authors suggest future directions to improve machine learning modeling to investigate these relationships.
Here seeking to identify a possible solution to procrastination among college students, the authors used an online experiment that involved the random assignment of study partners that they shared their study time goal with. These partners were classified by status and group membership. The authors found that status and group membership did not significantly affect the likelihood of college students achieving their committed goals, and also suggest the potential of soft commitment devices that take advantage of social relationships to reduce procrastination.
The Tor network allows individuals to secure their online identities by encrypting their traffic, however it is vulnerable to fingerprinting attacks that threaten users' online privacy. In this paper, the authors develop a new video fingerprinting model to explore how well video streaming can be fingerprinted in Tor. They found that their model could distinguish which one of 50 videos a user was hypothetically watching on the Tor network with 85% accuracy, demonstrating that video fingerprinting is a serious threat to the privacy of Tor users.
In this study the authors looked at the ability of artificial intelligence to detect tempo, rhythm, and intonation of a piece played on violin. Technology such as this would allow for students to practice and get feedback without the need of a teacher.
There are believed to be ~20,000 nebulae in the Milky Way Galaxy. However, humans have only cataloged ~1,800 of them even though we have gathered 1.3 million nebula images. Classification of nebulae is important as it helps scientists understand the chemical composition of a nebula which in turn helps them understand the material of the original star. Our research on nebulae classification aims to make the process of classifying new nebulae faster and more accurate using a hybrid of deep learning and machine learning techniques.