Fear of mathematics is a widespread phenomenon. Pandey and Pandey investigate what this fear has to do with the place of mathematics in a school curriculum, by developing a method for comparing mathematical problem complexity to the complexity of English literature coursework.

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Quantitative definition of chemical synthetic pathway complexity of organic compounds

Irrespective of the final application of a molecule, synthetic accessibility is the rate-determining step in discovering and developing novel entities. However, synthetic complexity is challenging to quantify as a single metric, since it is a composite of several measurable metrics, some of which include cost, safety, and availability. Moreover, defining a single synthetic accessibility metric for both natural products and non-natural products poses yet another challenge given the structural distinctions between these two classes of compounds. Here, we propose a model for synthetic accessibility of all chemical compounds, inspired by the Central Limit Theorem, and devise a novel synthetic accessibility metric assessing the overall feasibility of making chemical compounds that has been fitted to a Gaussian distribution.

Read More...Fractals: Exploring Mandelbrot Coordinates and qualitative characteristics of the corresponding Julia Set

Here based on an interest in fractals, the authors used a Julia Set Generator to consider a specific point on the Mandelbrot set with an associated coordinate. In this manner, they found that the complexity of the Mandelbrot and Julia Sets are governed by relatively simple rules, revealing that the intricate patterns of fractals can be defined by defined by simple rules and patterns.

Read More...A meta-analysis on NIST post-quantum cryptographic primitive finalists

The advent of quantum computing will pose a substantial threat to the security of classical cryptographic methods, which could become vulnerable to quantum-based attacks. In response to this impending challenge, the field of post-quantum cryptography has emerged, aiming to develop algorithms that can withstand the computational power of quantum computers. This study addressed the pressing concern of classical cryptographic methods becoming vulnerable to quantum-based attacks due to the rise of quantum computing. The emergence of post-quantum cryptography has led to the development of new resistant algorithms. Our research focused on four quantum-resistant algorithms endorsed by America’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2022: CRYSTALS-Kyber, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, FALCON, and SPHINCS+. This study evaluated the security, performance, and comparative attributes of the four algorithms, considering factors such as key size, encryption/decryption speed, and complexity. Comparative analyses against each other and existing quantum-resistant algorithms provided insights into the strengths and weaknesses of each program. This research explored potential applications and future directions in the realm of quantum-resistant cryptography. Our findings concluded that the NIST algorithms were substantially more effective and efficient compared to classical cryptographic algorithms. Ultimately, this work underscored the need to adapt cryptographic techniques in the face of advancing quantum computing capabilities, offering valuable insights for researchers and practitioners in the field. Implementing NIST-endorsed quantum-resistant algorithms substantially reduced the vulnerability of cryptographic systems to quantum-based attacks compared to classical cryptographic methods.

Read More...Mathematical modeling of plant community composition for urban greenery plans

Here recognizing the importance of urban green space for the health of humans and other organisms, the authors investigated if mathematical modeling can be used to develop an urban greenery management plan with high eco-sustainability by calculating the composition of a plant community. They optimized and tested their model against green fields in a Beijing city park. Although the compositions predicted by their models differed somewhat from the composition of testing fields, they conclude that by using a mathematical model such as this urban green space can be finely designed to be ecologically and economically sustainable.

Read More...Heat conduction: Mathematical modeling and experimental data

In this experiment, the authors modify the heat equation to account for imperfect insulation during heat transfer and compare it to experimental data to determine which is more accurate.

Read More...An Analysis of the Mathematical Accuracy of Perspective in Paintings

Here the authors investigate whether there are mathematical inaccuracies of perspective in artists' paintings that are undetectable with our naked eyes. Using the cross-ratio method, they find that there are three significant errors in various famous paintings which increase as the structures in the paintings recede from the viewer.

Read More...An optimal pacing approach for track distance events

In this study, the authors use existing mathematical models to how high school athletes pace 800 m, 1600 m, and 3200 m distance track events compared to elite athletes.

Read More...Comparison of three large language models as middle school math tutoring assistants

Middle school math forms the basis for advanced mathematical courses leading up to the university level. Large language models (LLMs) have the potential to power next-generation educational technologies, acting as digital tutors to students. The main objective of this study was to determine whether LLMs like ChatGPT, Bard, and Llama 2 can serve as reliable middle school math tutoring assistants on three tutoring tasks: hint generation, comprehensive solution, and exercise creation.

Read More...A novel approach to determine which organism best displays Gijswijt's Sequence in its genome

The sequence of nitrogenous bases that make up the DNA of organisms can contain hidden mathematical sequences. Here the authors used BioPython, a programming tool, to find an organism that displays Gijswijt’s Sequence in its genome. In this manner they found that the common carp best displays Gijswijt’s Sequence in its genome.

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