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Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms with Multiple Simulated Colonies Offer Potential Advantages for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem and, by Extension, Other Optimization Problems

Wildenhain et al. | May 22, 2015

Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms with Multiple Simulated Colonies Offer Potential Advantages for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem and, by Extension, Other Optimization Problems

Ant colony optimization algorithms simulate ants moving from point to point on a graph and coordinate their actions, similar to ants laying down pheromones to strengthen a path as it is used more frequently. These ACO algorithms can be applied to the classic traveling salesman problem, which aims to determine the lowest-cost path through a given set of points on a graph. In this study, a novel multiple-colony system was developed that uses multiple simulated ant colonies to generate improved solutions to the traveling salesman problem.

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The association between hunting and the feeding and vigilance times of American bison in North Dakota and Montana

McCandless et al. | Mar 30, 2022

The association between hunting and the feeding and vigilance times of American bison in North Dakota and Montana

This study hypothesized that feeding times of bison in the hunted populations would be significantly shorter than that of bison in the nonhunted population and vigilance times would be significantly longer than that of bison in the nonhunted population. Notably, the results found significant differences in feeding and vigilance times of bison in the hunted and non-hunted populations. However, these differences did not support the original hypothesis; bison in hunted populations spent more time feeding and less time vigilant than bison in the non-hunted population. Future studies investigating the association between hunting and bison behaviors could use populations of bison that are hunted more frequently, which may provide different results.

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Effects of Prolonged Azithromycin Therapy on Bacterial Resistance to Functionally Analogous Antibiotics

Gibbs et al. | Dec 04, 2020

Effects of Prolonged Azithromycin Therapy on Bacterial Resistance to Functionally Analogous Antibiotics

In this study, the authors investigate a potential case of cross antibiotic-resistance. Using swabs from an individual who received long-term treatments of azithromycin, they addressed the question of whether any bacteria in this individual might develop resistance to not only azithromycin, but also other antibiotics with similar structures. This study cleverly addresses the important issue of antibiotic resistance from a new and thoughtful approach.

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health of Teens

Qureshi et al. | Nov 19, 2020

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health of Teens

In this study, the authors investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the mental health of teens. Using data from a study done in Islamabad, Pakistan, the authors find that many teens between the ages of 13 and 19 show signs of mental illness. This study reports important data regarding the mental health of youth and points toward an increased need to address this topic during the pandemic.

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Variations in Heat Absorption and Release of Earth Surfaces During Fall in Laramie, Wyoming

Ramesh et al. | Sep 08, 2020

Variations in Heat Absorption and Release of Earth Surfaces During Fall in Laramie, Wyoming

Here the authors investigate the contributions of man-made surfaces in Laramie, Wyoming to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Heat absorption and release by five surfaces were measured in the autumn of 2018. By recording temperatures of man-made and natural surfaces at early morning, mid-afternoon, and evening using an infrared thermometer, the authors determined that man-made surfaces retained more heat in fall than natural surfaces.

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The Clinical Accuracy of Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring for ex vivo Artificial Pancreas

Levy et al. | Jul 10, 2016

The Clinical Accuracy of Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring for <i>ex vivo</i> Artificial Pancreas

Diabetes is a serious worldwide epidemic that affects a growing portion of the population. While the most common method for testing blood glucose levels involves finger pricking, it is painful and inconvenient for patients. The authors test a non-invasive method to measure glucose levels from diabetic patients, and investigate whether the method is clinically accurate and universally applicable.

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Impact of Soil Productivity on the Growth of Two Meyer Lemon Trees

Shen et al. | Dec 14, 2020

Impact of Soil Productivity on the Growth of Two Meyer Lemon Trees

Here, the authors aimed to apply home soil testing to identify the cause of the growth differences between two lemon trees. They hypothesized that differences in physical and chemical soil characteristics were influencing differences in soil productivity and plant growth. Overall, the study demonstrated the effectiveness of home soil testing to characterize soils and help homeowners solve common gardening problems.

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Covalently Entrapping Catalase into Calcium Alginate Worm Pieces Using EDC Carbodiimide as a Crosslinker.

Suresh et al. | Mar 31, 2019

Covalently Entrapping Catalase into Calcium Alginate Worm Pieces Using EDC Carbodiimide as a Crosslinker.

Catalase is a biocatalyst used to break down toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen in industries such as cheese and textiles. Improving the efficiency of catalase would help us to make some industrial products, such as cheese, less expensively. The best way to maintain catalase’s conformation, and thus enhance its activity, is to immobilize it. The primary goal of this study was to find a new way of immobilizing catalase.

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A potentially underestimated source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in agriculture

Corcimaru et al. | May 18, 2022

A potentially underestimated source of CO<sub>2</sub> and other greenhouse gases in agriculture

Here the authors investigated the role of agricultural fertilizers as potential contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast to the typical investigations that consider microbiological processes, the authors considered purely chemical processes. Based on their results they found that as much as 20.41% of all CO2 emission from land-based activities could be a result of mineral nitrogen fertilizers.

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