Cytotoxicity evaluation of Amaranthus extracts compared with AS20 on MCF-7 cancer cells
(1) The International School Bangalore, (2) iCREST-International Stem Cell Services Limited
Advancement in oncology research is striving to find new and effective therapies for treating cancer, limiting the drawbacks of conventional treatments like chemotherapy, radiotherapy, etc. Many plant-derived active ingredients such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and polyphenols are used in cancer treatments which are FDA approved. Amaranthus is a traditional Indian medicinal plant used to treat a variety of diseases. It was previously found to contain phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids among other bioactive phytochemicals. In the present study, we hypothesized that AS20, a polyherbal formulation derived from Amaranthus leaves and inflorescence has higher anticancer properties than individual extracts such as leaf methanol and inflorescence acetone extract on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also hypothesized that AS20 would induce higher levels of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We discovered that AS20 had a considerably lesser maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to individual plant extracts of Amaranthus spinosus using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. AS20 had a lower IC50 than leaf methanol and inflorescence acetone extract respectively. Paclitaxel (a chemotherapeutic drug which can be used in cancer treatment) was used as a positive control and showed similar IC50 value like AS20. These findings indicated that AS20 did not show a significantly lower IC50 value compared to the chemotherapeutic drug Paclitaxel. Fluorescence staining methods such as Hoechst, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and acridine orange with propidium iodide (dual staining) showed that AS20 caused 51% cell death in MCF-7 cells compared to 4% cell death in untreated MCF-7 cells after 48 hours of exposure, indicating successful drug activity in inducing apoptosis.
This article has been tagged with: