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Scientific project in physics "Carbonated liquids and carbonation level"

Irina et al. | Jan 21, 2024

Scientific project in physics "Carbonated liquids and carbonation level"

In our work we followed the formation of gas bubbles on the surface of the vessel walls in different carbonated liquids, over different time intervals, at different temperatures and in vessels made of different materials. Our results made it possible to identify patterns affecting the process of formation and disappearance of carbon dioxide bubbles.

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Extracellular vesicles derived from oxidatively stressed stromal cells promote cancer progression

Chen et al. | Jan 15, 2024

Extracellular vesicles derived from oxidatively stressed stromal cells promote cancer progression

This paper hypothesized that the tumor microenvironment mediates cancer’s response to oxidative stress by delivering extracellular vesicles to cancer cells. Breast and lung cancer cells were treated with EVs, reavealing that EVs extracted from oxidatively stressed adipocytes increased the cell proliferation of breast cancer cells. These findings present a novel way that the TME influences cancer progression.

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Utilizing meteorological data and machine learning to predict and reduce the spread of California wildfires

Bilwar et al. | Jan 15, 2024

Utilizing meteorological data and machine learning to predict and reduce the spread of California wildfires
Image credit: Pixabay

This study hypothesized that a machine learning model could accurately predict the severity of California wildfires and determine the most influential meteorological factors. It utilized a custom dataset with information from the World Weather Online API and a Kaggle dataset of wildfires in California from 2013-2020. The developed algorithms classified fires into seven categories with promising accuracy (around 55 percent). They found that higher temperatures, lower humidity, lower dew point, higher wind gusts, and higher wind speeds are the most significant contributors to the spread of a wildfire. This tool could vastly improve the efficiency and preparedness of firefighters as they deal with wildfires.

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Comparative analysis of CO2 emissions of electric ride-hailing vehicles over conventional gasoline personal vehicles

Raman et al. | Jan 12, 2024

Comparative analysis of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions of electric ride-hailing vehicles over conventional gasoline personal vehicles
Image credit: Paul Hanaoka

While some believe that ride-hailing services offer reduced CO2 emissions compared to individual driving, studies have found that driving without passengers on ride-hailing trips or "deadheading" prevents this. Here, with a mathematical model, the authors investigated if the use of electric vehicles as ride-hailing vehicles could offer reduced CO2 emissions. They found that the improved vehicle efficiency and cleaner generation could in fact lower emissions compared to the use of personal gas vehicles.

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Using explainable artificial intelligence to identify patient-specific breast cancer subtypes

Suresh et al. | Jan 12, 2024

Using explainable artificial intelligence to identify patient-specific breast cancer subtypes

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, with approximately 300,000 diagnosed with breast cancer in 2023. It ranks second in cancer-related deaths for women, after lung cancer with nearly 50,000 deaths. Scientists have identified important genetic mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 that lead to the development of breast cancer, but previous studies were limited as they focused on specific populations. To overcome limitations, diverse populations and powerful statistical methods like genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing are needed. Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) can be used in oncology and breast cancer research to overcome these limitations of specificity as it can analyze datasets of diagnosed patients by providing interpretable explanations for identified patterns and predictions. This project aims to achieve technological and medicinal goals by using advanced algorithms to identify breast cancer subtypes for faster diagnoses. Multiple methods were utilized to develop an efficient algorithm. We hypothesized that an XAI approach would be best as it can assign scores to genes, specifically with a 90% success rate. To test that, we ran multiple trials utilizing XAI methods through the identification of class-specific and patient-specific key genes. We found that the study demonstrated a pipeline that combines multiple XAI techniques to identify potential biomarker genes for breast cancer with a 95% success rate.

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Predicting baseball pitcher efficacy using physical pitch characteristics

Oberoi et al. | Jan 11, 2024

Predicting baseball pitcher efficacy using physical pitch characteristics
Image credit: Antoine Schibler

Here, the authors sought to develop a new metric to evaluate the efficacy of baseball pitchers using machine learning models. They found that the frequency of balls, was the most predictive feature for their walks/hits allowed per inning (WHIP) metric. While their machine learning models did not identify a defining trait, such as high velocity, spin rate, or types of pitches, they found that consistently pitching within the strike zone resulted in significantly lower WHIPs.

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