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The gender gap in STEM at top U.S. Universities: change over time and relationship with ranking

Kruus et al. | Jun 25, 2024

The gender gap in STEM at top U.S. Universities: change over time and relationship with ranking

Authors address the gender disparity in STEM fields, examining changes in gender diversity across male-dominated undergraduate programs over 19 years at 24 top universities. Analyzing data from NCES IPEDS, it identifies STEM as persistently male-dominated but notes increasing gender diversity in many disciplines, particularly in recent years. Results indicate that higher-ranked universities in disciplines like computer science and mechanical engineering show a weak correlation with improved gender diversity, suggesting effective initiatives can mitigate the gender gap in STEM, despite ongoing challenges.

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Public Perception of the Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Diabetes Based on YouTube Comments

Kim et al. | Jun 25, 2024

Public Perception of the Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Diabetes Based on YouTube Comments
Image credit: The authors

Artificial sweeteners are rising in popularity, in part due to the influence of social media platforms like YouTube. However, YouTube commenters often repeat information about artificial sweeteners that is not supported by scientific research. To investigate how misinformation about sweeteners spreads through social media, Kim and Yoo conduct a content analysis of YouTube comments to reveal how many comments repeat misinformation about artificial sweeteners' effects.

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High school students show some reluctance to COVID-19 guidelines

Basit Abid et al. | Jun 25, 2024

High school students show some reluctance to COVID-19 guidelines
Image credit: The authors

COVID-19 has officially been downgraded from the status of a global health emergency, but have COVID-19 safety practices become a new way of life for students? The authors collected survey data on COVID-19-related knowledge and behaviors of high-school students in Punjab, Pakistan and Santa Clara County, California, USA, so see where high-schoolers stand on pandemic safety today.

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Racial disparities in school discipline in Collier County, Florida

Khan et al. | Jun 21, 2024

Racial disparities in school discipline in Collier County, Florida
Image credit: Ivan Aleksic

Here, the authorized analyzed data from the Florida Department of Education Office of Safe Schools regarding disciplinary outcomes in Collier County public schools. They reported that Black Students were more likely to receive both in-school and out-of-school suspensions than White students, which they concluded suggests racial inequities in school discipline that requires addressing as a society.

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Unveiling the wound healing potential of umbilical cord derived conditioned medium: an in vitro study

Vasal et al. | Jun 17, 2024

Unveiling the wound healing potential of umbilical cord derived conditioned medium: an <em>in vitro</em> study

Chronic wounds pose a serious threat to an individual’s health and quality of life. However, due to the severity and morbidity of such wounds, many pre-existing treatments are inefficient or costly. While the use of skin grafts and other such biological constructs in chronic wound healing has already been characterized, the use of umbilical cord tissue has only recently garnered interest, despite the cytokine-rich composition of Wharton’s jelly (cord component). Our current study aimed to characterize the use of an umbilical cord derived conditioned medium (UC-CM) to treat chronic wounds.

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Automated dynamic lighting control system to reduce energy consumption in daylight

Jagannathan et al. | Jun 17, 2024

Automated dynamic lighting control system to reduce energy consumption in daylight
Image credit: Jagannathan and Mehrotra 2024

Buildings, which are responsible for the majority of electricity consumption in cities like Dubai, are often exclusively reliant on electrical lighting even in the presence of daylight to meet the illumination requirements of the building. This inefficient use of lighting creates potential to further optimize the energy efficiency of buildings by complementing natural light with electrical lighting. Prior research has mostly used ballasts (variable resistors) to regulate the brightness of bulbs. There has been limited research pertaining to the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) and the use of ‘triodes for alternating current’ (TRIACs). PWM and TRIACs rapidly stop and restart the flow of current to the bulb thus saving energy whilst maintaining a constant illumination level of a space. We conducted experiments to investigate the feasibility of using TRIACs and PWM in regulating the brightness of bulbs. We also established the relationship between power and brightness within the experimental setups. Our results indicate that lighting systems can be regulated through these alternate methods and that there is potential to save up to 16% of energy used without affecting the overall lighting of a given space. Since most energy used in buildings is still produced through fossil fuels, energy savings from lighting systems could contribute towards a lower carbon footprint. Our study provides an innovative solution to conserve light energy in buildings during daytime.

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