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Differential privacy in machine learning for traffic forecasting

Vinay et al. | Dec 21, 2022

Differential privacy in machine learning for traffic forecasting

In this paper, we measured the privacy budgets and utilities of different differentially private mechanisms combined with different machine learning models that forecast traffic congestion at future timestamps. We expected the ANNs combined with the Staircase mechanism to perform the best with every value in the privacy budget range, especially with the medium high values of the privacy budget. In this study, we used the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and neural network models to forecast and then added differentially private Laplacian, Gaussian, and Staircase noise to our datasets. We tested two real traffic congestion datasets, experimented with the different models, and examined their utility for different privacy budgets. We found that a favorable combination for this application was neural networks with the Staircase mechanism. Our findings identify the optimal models when dealing with tricky time series forecasting and can be used in non-traffic applications like disease tracking and population growth.

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The novel function of PMS2 mutation on ovarian cancer proliferation

Cho et al. | Dec 18, 2022

The novel function of <em>PMS2</em> mutation on ovarian cancer proliferation

With disruption of DNA repair pathways pertinent to the timeline of cancer, thorough evaluation of mutations relevant to DNA repair proteins is crucial within cancer research. One such mutation includes S815L PMS2 - a mutation that results in significant decrease of DNA repair function by PMS2 protein. While mutation of PMS2 is associated with significantly increased colorectal and endometrial cancer risk, much work is left to do to establish the functional effects of the S815L PMS2 mutation in ovarian cancer progression. In this article, researchers contribute to this essential area of research by uncovering the tumor-progressive effects of the S815L PMS2 mutation in the context of ovarian cancer cell lines.

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Heat impact to food’s shelf life - An example of milk

Xu et al. | Dec 13, 2022

Heat impact to food’s shelf life - An example of milk

Food spoilage happens when food is not kept in a good storage condition. Qualitatively estimating the shortened shelf life of food could reduce food waste. In this study, we tested the impact of heat on milk shelf life. Our results showed that an exposure at room temperature (25°C) for 3.2 hours will decrease the shelf life of milk by one day.

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Effect of hypervitaminosis A in regenerating planaria: A potential model for teratogenicity testing

Bennet et al. | Dec 12, 2022

Effect of hypervitaminosis A in regenerating planaria: A potential model for teratogenicity testing

This unique research study evaluated the potential use of the flatworm, brown planaria (Dugesia tigrine), as an alternative model for teratogenicity testing. In this study, we exposed amputated planaria to varying concentrations of a known teratogen, vitamin A (retinol), for approximately 2 weeks, and evaluated multiple parameters including the formation of blastema and eyes. The results from this study demonstrated that high concentrations of retinol caused defects in head and eye formation in regenerating planaria, with similarities to vitamin A related teratogenicity findings in mammals. Based on these results, regenerating brown planaria are a promising alternative model for teratogenicity testing, which can potentially be paradigm shifting as it can reduce cost, time, and pregnant animal use in research.

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Spectrophotometric comparison of 4-Nitrophenyl carbonates & carbamates as base-labile protecting groups

Kocalar et al. | Dec 12, 2022

Spectrophotometric comparison of 4-Nitrophenyl carbonates & carbamates as base-labile protecting groups

In organic synthesis, protecting groups are derivatives of reactive functionalities that play a key role in ensuring chemoselectivity of chemical transformations. To protect alcohols and amines, acid-labile tert-butyloxycarbonyl protecting groups are often employed but are avoided when the substrate is acid-sensitive. Thus, orthogonal base-labile protecting groups have been in demand to enable selective deprotection and to preserve the reactivity of acid-sensitive substrates. To meet this demand, we present 4-nitrophenyl carbonates and carbamates as orthogonal base-labile protecting group strategies.

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Socio-economic and awareness correlates of physical activity of government school children in India

Nandivada et al. | Dec 11, 2022

Socio-economic and awareness correlates of physical activity of government school children in India

Here, based on the identified importance of physical activity in the development of young children, the authors investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors on the amount of physical activity of government-school children in India. They found significant differences between boys and girls, rural and urban, and children who were encouraged to exercise and those who were not. Overall, they suggest that their findings point to the important role of schools and communities in promoting healthy active lifestyles for developing children.

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