Formation and sticking of air bubbles in water in d-block containers

(1) Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 AFS Kalaikunda, West Bengal, India, (2) Air Force Golden Jubilee Institute, New Delhi, India, (3) West Bengal State University, West Bengal, India
Cover photo for Formation and sticking of air bubbles in water in d-block containers

Bubble formation is a common observation encountered on a daily basis. Although bubble formation takes place in all kinds of containers, containers made of d-block elements such as copper and steel present a specific phenomenon. The water bubbles stick to the walls of the container after formation and show a high mechanical and structural stability. In this study, we aimed to improve our understanding of the formation of bubbles that result from pouring water. We hypothesized that interstitial hydrogen present in the d-block metals form hydrogen bonds with the water bubbles accounting for the structural and mechanical stability. To test this, we poured water in containers of different cross-sectional areas and different materials from different heights. We also varied the temperature of water. Through these experiments, we found mathematical relations to predict the number of bubbles forming at different initial conditions and the force of H-bonding between the interstitial hydrogen and the water bubbles.

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